Thursday, January 3, 2008
Mechanical clock (1335, Italy)
Viol (viola da gamba) and Cello (late 15th and 16th century, Italy)
Pocket watch (1510, Germany)Invented by Peter Henlein.
Violin (Early 16th century, Italy)
1593 : Invented by Galileo (Italy)
1714 : Mercury thermometer invented by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (Poland/Netherlands) Invented by Galileo Galilei.
Microscope (1595, Netherlands)Invented by Zacharias Janssen.
late 11th century : astronomical lenses (Sweden)
13th century : experimental telescopes built by Francis Bacon (UK)
1595/1608 : refracting telescope (Netherlands)
1609 : improved by Galileo (Italy)
Newspaper (1605, Belgium/France/Germany)The world's first printed newspapers were the Relation aller fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien published in Strasbourg (Germany at the time, now France), and the Nieuwe Tijdingen, published the same year in Antwerp (part of the Spanish Netherlands at the time, now Belgium).
1623 : automatic calculator invented by Wilhelm Schickard (Germany)
1642 : adding machine invented by Blaise Pascal (France)
1954 : electronic calculator invented by IBM (USA)
Barometer (1643, Italy)Invented by Evangelista Torricelli.
Daily newspaper (1645, Germany)The Einkommende Zeitungen in Lepizing.
Pendulum clock (1657, Netherlands)Invented by Christiaan Huygens.
Pressure cooker (1679, France)Invented by Denis Papin.
Clarinet (1690, Germany)Invented by Johann Christoph Denner.
Steam engine (1698, UK)Invented by Thomas Savery in 1698, and improved by James Watt in 1769.
Thursday, December 27, 2007
2. Social sciences, the systematic study of human behavior and societies.
Many definitions and explanations given by people & institutes for this word Science. Let’s see some of them.
By Academic Press Dictionary of Science & Technology
The systematic observation of natural events and conditions in order to discover facts about them and to formulate laws and principles based on these facts.
The organized body of knowledge that is derived from such observations and that can be verified or tested by further investigation.
Any specific branch of this general body of knowledge, such as biology, physics, geology, or astronomy.
by Dr. Sheldon Gottlieb
Science involves more than the gaining of knowledge. It is the systematic and organized inquiry into the natural world and its phenomena. Science is about gaining a deeper and often useful understanding of the world.
by Robert H. Dott, Jr., and Henry L. Batten, Evolution of the Earth (2nd edition)
Science consists simply of the formulation and testing of hypotheses based on observational evidence; experiments are important where applicable, but their function is merely to simplify observation by imposing controlled conditions.
by Richard Feynman, Nobel-prize-winning physicist, in The Pleasure of Finding Things Out
Science alone of all the subjects contains within itself the lesson of the danger of belief in the infallibility of the greatest teachers in the preceeding generation . . .As a matter of fact, I can also define science another way: Science is the belief in the ignorance of experts.